Only one Metropolitan Development Plan, prepared by Kolkata, was noted in 2011 out of 35 million-plus cities as per census 2001. It rose to 53 by 2011 as per the census data of 2011. Today, several proposals are seen among the current 51 million-plus cities, including Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Surat, Ahmadabad, and many more. Metropolitan Planning Committees have been established in a few states, including West Bengal, Maharashtra, and Haryana. Under JnNURM, there was a reform objective, but it was lost in the AMRUT system.
States with populations of 5 million or more, as well as megacities, have made early efforts, although as previously said, the period for upgrade begins when a city hits the 1 million level. According to biology, the larger the city, the more efficient it is, as evidenced by economies of scale and even metabolic biological processes. Animal species, i.e. two of the same species, are 50% more efficient because they require 50% less energy than two specimens of lesser species. As a result, when we double the size of a metropolis, we immediately double or increase by 50% the metropolis’ total output capacity, making the metropolis — properly managed.
The metropolis has various municipalities, and it is necessary to integrate them. Why? So that they are not only governing a hundred thousand people but a million or two million people. These residents are all connected by the transportation system. As a result, the metropolis becomes much more efficient, and effective. At times even 50% to 60% more efficient than a disorganized and uncoordinated system.
For proof, a comparative study was analyzed between Delhi, London, Bogota, and Tokyo. The densities of Delhi and Bogota are shown to the right in Figure 1. Because there is no transport system capable of connecting the entire metropolis, all of the densities are concentrated in the center. Figure 1 shows sprawl on the left because there are centralities where the population is concentrated around the TODs (Transit-Oriented-Development). The urban centrality refers to the heavy transportation system, which includes rail, stations, and their positions in the metropolis, which has a population of more than 3–4 million people.
These urban centers generate dynamics that aid in crime reduction, tourism, and other sorts of movement across the metropolis. They create a varied array of options that are seamlessly integrated into transportation infrastructures.